Tubal Disease

A fallopian tube obstruction that prevents an egg and sperm from reaching the uterus during pregnancy causes tubal infertility. Infertility can result from a blocked or damaged fallopian tube, which prevents an egg and a sperm from fusing together.

Otherwise, despite the damaged tube, if the egg gets fertilized, the embryo will be unable to reach the uterus and will remain in the tube. This leads to an ectopic or tubal pregnancy.

What Are Tubal Factors Causing Subfertility?

Tubal factors account for 25% of all causes of subfertility. A normal tubal function is important for conception. Tubal disorders (block / abnormal function) can block an egg from entering or traveling down the fallopian tube to meet the sperm, preventing fertilization. Pelvic infections and sexually transmitted infections damage the tube.

Tubal disorders can be diagnosed using various tests like Hysterosalpingography (HSG), Saline sonography, Laparoscopy with Chromotubation (dye test).

What is Hydrosalpinx?

Hydrosalpinx is a fallopian tube that is filled with fluid. It is caused by an injury to the end of the tube, which causes the end to close. Glands within the tube produce a watery fluid that collects within the tube and produces swelling. It is one of the common tubal factors for infertility.

How Does It Affect Fertility and Infertility Treatment?

It increases risk of ectopic pregnancy. It decreases the success rates of IVF by preventing embryo implantation. This is due to the back flow of the harmful fluid from the hydrosalpinx. Hence, it needs to be removed or separated from the uterus before commencing IVF treatment.

Causes of Tubal Infertility

The fallopian tubes can be damaged in several ways, such as:

Pelvic Infections

Women with a history of chlamydia, gonorrhea, or Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) could have damaged or blocked fallopian tubes that lead to tubal infertility.

Endometriosis

Women who have endometriosis may have an accumulation of scar tissue in their fallopian tubes. This can cause a blockage or damage to the tubes, causing tubal infertility.

Scar Tissue

Surgery of the fallopian tubes or pelvis can lead to scarring and consequently block the tubes, thus causing tubal infertility.

Symptoms of Tubal Infertility

The basic symptom of tubal infertility is one’s inability to conceive. When they consult their doctors, women realize they have a damaged fallopian tube. And, if infertility is combined with PID, it could well be diagnosed as tubal infertility.

Treatment of Tubal Infertility

Tubal surgery can repair the damage to the tubes to an extent. Another treatment option is in vitro fertilization (IVF).

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